Indications and Usage
Eloxatin® (oxaliplatin for injection), used in combination with infusional 5-FU/LV, is indicated for
- Adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer patients who have undergone complete resection of the primary tumor. The indication is based on an improvement in disease-free survival, with no demonstrated benefit in overall survival after a median follow-up of 4 years
- Treatment of advanced carcinoma of the colon or rectum
Clinical Safety Considerations
Eloxatin® should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Appropriate management of therapy and complications is possible only when adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities are readily available.
Anaphylactic-like reactions to Eloxatin® have been reported and may occur within minutes of Eloxatin® administration. Epinephrine, corticosteroids, and antihistamines have been employed to alleviate symptoms, and discontinuation of Eloxatin® therapy may be required.
- Eloxatin® should not be administered to patients with a history of known allergy to Eloxatin® or other platinum compounds. Hypersensitivity and anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions to Eloxatin® have been reported and were similar in nature and severity to those reported with other platinum compounds (ie, rash, urticaria, erythema, pruritus, and, rarely, bronchospasm and hypotension). These reactions occur within minutes of administration and should be managed with appropriate supportive therapy. Drug-related deaths from this reaction have been reported
- Eloxatin® may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Women of childbearing potential should be advised not to become pregnant while receiving Eloxatin®. It is not known whether Eloxatin® or its derivatives are excreted in human milk
- Eloxatin® has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis (<1% of study patients), which may be fatal. The combined incidence of cough and dyspnea was 7.4% (<1% grade 3, no grade 4) in the Eloxatin® plus 5-FU/LV arm compared to 4.5% (no grade 3, 0.1% grade 4) in the 5-FU/LV alone arm in the adjuvant colon cancer study. In this study, one patient died from eosinophilic pneumonia in the Eloxatin® combination arm. The combined incidence of cough, dyspnea, and hypoxia was 43% (7% grade 3 and 4) in the Eloxatin® plus 5-FU/LV arm compared to 32% (5% grade 3 and 4) in the irinotecan plus 5-FU/LV arm in patients with previously untreated colorectal cancer. In case of unexplained respiratory symptoms, Eloxatin® should be discontinued until pulmonary investigation excludes interstitial lung disease or pulmonary fibrosis
- Eloxatin® is associated with two types of primarily peripheral sensory neuropathy: an acute, reversible type of early onset and a persistent type (>14 days). In patients with advanced colorectal cancer paresthesias occurred in 77% (all grades) and 18% (grade 3/4) of previously untreated patients. In previously treated patients, acute neuropathy occurred in 56% (all grades) and 2% (grade 3/4) of patients; persistent neuropathy occurred in 48% (all grades) and 6% (grade 3/4) of patients. In patients with stage II and III colon cancer, paresthesia was seen in 92% (all grades) and 13% (grade 3/4) of patients; 21% (all grades), 0.5% (grade 3/4) had residual paresthesia at 18-month follow-up
- Hepatotoxicity, as evidenced in the adjuvant study by increase in transaminases and alkaline phosphatase was observed more commonly in the Eloxatin® combination arm.
The incidence of increased bilirubin was similar on both arms. Changes noted on liver biopsies include: peliosis, nodular regenerative hyperplasia or sinusoidal alterations, perisinusoidal fibrosis and veno-occlusive lesions. Hepatic vascular disorders should be considered and, if appropriate, investigated in case of abnormal liver function test results or portal hypertension not explained by liver metastases.
- Monitoring of white blood cell count with differential, hemoglobin, platelet count and blood chemistries (including ALT, AST, bilirubin and creatinine) is recommended before each Eloxatin® cycle
- The safety and effectiveness of Eloxatin® plus 5-FU/LV in patients with renal impairment have not been evaluated. Since the primary route of platinum elimination is renal, this combination should be used with caution in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Clearance of these products may be decreased by coadministration of potentially nephrotoxic compounds, although this has not been specifically studied
- The incidence of diarrhea, dehydration, hypokalemia, leukopenia, fatigue and syncope were higher in patients >65 years old
- Extravasation may result in local pain and inflammation that may be severe and lead to complications, including necrosis. Injection site reaction, including redness, swelling and pain, has been reported
- There have been reports of prolonged prothrombin time and INR occasionally associated with hemorrhage in patients receiving Eloxatin® plus 5-FU/LV while on anticoagulants. Patients receiving Eloxatin® plus 5-FU/LV and requiring oral anticoagulants may require closer monitoring
- The most common adverse reactions in patients with stage II or III colon cancer receiving adjuvant therapy were peripheral sensory neuropathy, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, nausea, increase in transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, diarrhea, emesis, fatigue, and stomatitis. The most common adverse reactions in patients with advanced colorectal cancer were peripheral sensory neuropathy, fatigue, neutropenia, nausea, emesis, and diarrhea
For more information about Eloxatin® or for full prescribing information, including BOXED WARNING, visit www.eloxatin.com.