Eloxatin® received approval in France for the second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in April 1996, and as a first-line treatment in April 1998. In July 1999, Eloxatin® was approved for the first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer in major European countries through the Mutual Recognition Procedure, France being the Reference Member State.
Eloxatin® successfully completed a Mutual Recognition Procedure in Europe in December 2003, which allowed the product to be marketed for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid (i.e., in first- and second-line treatment).
In September 2004, the indication for Eloxatin® was extended in Europe, again through the Mutual Recognition Procedure, to include the “Adjuvant treatment of stage III (Dukes’ C) colon cancer after complete resection of primary tumor.”
In the United States
In the United States, Eloxatin™, in combination with infusional 5-FU/LV, received approval on January 9, 2004, for the first-line treatment of advanced carcinoma of the colon or rectum (ie, first therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer). This same Eloxatin-based combination had initially (August 2002) received FDA approval for second-line treatment, (ie, therapy for previously treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer).
On November 4, 2004, this Eloxatin™-based regimen was approved for the adjuvant treatment of stage III (Dukes’ C) colon cancer after complete resection of the primary tumor.
Eloxatin was developed in association with Debiopharm SA and is currently marketed by sanofi-aventis in more than 60 countries.
Colorectal Cancer as a Leading Cause of Death
Every year, about one million new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed worldwide. About 194,000 new cases are detected in Europe and 150,000 in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, accounting for 10% to 15% of all cancer deaths. Over a lifetime, about 1 in 18 people develop colorectal cancer and more than 56,000 people die from it in the United States each year. In Europe, 94,000 people die from colorectal cancer each year.
Colorectal cancer is cancer that begins in the cells that line the colon or rectum. When these cancer cells spread away from the colon to distant locations in the body, the cancer is referred to as metastatic. Cancer cells may spread, or metastasize, through the blood or lymphatic system, or directly grow into tissues adjacent to the original cancer.
A diagnosis of colorectal cancer is associated with a stage, which reflects the extent of the cancer and whether it has spread. Patients with colorectal cancer that has spread to distant organs or tissues are said to have advanced, or metastatic, colorectal cancer, also known as stage IV colorectal cancer. Patients with advanced colorectal cancer can now more confidently expect to live twice as long as they could only a few years ago.
Further Development in Other Types of Cancer
An extensive worldwide clinical development program is ongoing to explore the potential benefits of Eloxatin (oxaliplatin injection) in other types of cancer.
Clinical Considerations for ELOXATIN
Eloxatin, used in combination with infusional 5-FU/LV, is indicated for adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer patients who have undergone complete resection of the primary tumor. The indication is based on an improvement in disease-free survival, with no demonstrated benefit in overall survival after a median follow-up of 4 years.
Eloxatin, used in combination with infusional 5-FU/LV, is indicated for the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the colon or rectum.
Eloxatin™ (oxaliplatin injection) should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Appropriate management of therapy and complications is possible only when adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities are readily available.
Anaphylactic-like reactions to Eloxatin have been reported and may occur within minutes of Eloxatin administration. Epinephrine, corticosteroids, and antihistamines have been employed to alleviate symptoms, and discontinuation of Eloxatin therapy may be required.
Adjuvant Colon Cancer Setting
The incidence of grade 3 or grade 4 events was 70% and 31% on the Eloxatin combination arm and infusional 5-FU/LV arm, respectively. Granulocytopenia, paresthesia, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea were the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Paresthesia was seen in 92% of patients on the Eloxatin combination; 21% had residual paresthesia at 18-month follow-up. Three percent and 0.5% had grade 2 and 3 paresthesias, respectively, at 18-month follow-up. Grade 3 or 4 hypersensitivity was noted in 3% and may require discontinuation of therapy. Hepatotoxicity, evidenced by increase in transaminases (57% vs 34%) and alkaline phosphatases (42% vs 20%), was observed more commonly in the Eloxatin arm. The incidence of increased bilirubin was similar on both arms. Hepatic vascular disorders should be considered and investigated if abnormal liver function tests or portal hypertension are present and cannot be explained by liver metastases or other known etiologies.
Advanced Colorectal Cancer Setting
Fatigue, neuropathy, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were the more common adverse events. Neither febrile neutropenia nor requirement for platelet transfusion was increased as compared to treatment with irinotecan plus bolus 5-FU/LV. Eloxatin (oxaliplatin injection) has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis (<1% of study patients), which may be fatal. There have been reports while on study from clinical trials and from postmarketing surveillance of prolonged prothrombin time and INR occasionally associated with hemorrhage in patients who received Eloxatin plus 5-FU/LV while on anticoagulants. Patients requiring oral anticoagulants may require closer monitoring. Hypersensitivity has been observed (<2% grade 3/4) in clinical studies and trials. It was usually managed with standard epinephrine, corticosteroid, and antihistamine therapy, and may require discontinuation of Eloxatin therapy.
Full prescribing information, including clinical trial information, safety, dosing, drug-drug interactions, and contraindications, is available at: